Our offering is a unique enzyme-based biodegradation technology, which has the ability to be utilised as a carbon source by micro-organisms to convert most plastics quickly and safely into carbon dioxide, biomass, and water. Microbial breakdown is initiated where the carbonyl group is found. These functional groups are introduced in polyethylene during the photo thermal biodegradation process.
The formulation of the bacteria and enzyme-based substrate is absolutely unique. This consists of several organic ingredients narrowed down to the enzyme, protein and bacteria compound drawn only from natural resources and medicinal plants to make the process completely non-hazardous and non-toxic.
BioEnzyme Technologies® is using Nature to solve a Man-made problem.
Owing to the ever-increasing usage of non-degradable plastic products in daily life and to the corresponding environmental / pollution hazards of their non-degradable characteristics, this bio-technological research was undertaken to make polyethylene totally biodegradable and compostable.
The end result encourages polyethylene products to undergo a change in their chemical composition when exposed to environmental conditions. The loss of chemical properties in polyethylene, whilst in contact with soils and water, can be measured in comparison to a standard list, appropriate to plastic, during the same time interval. Our biodegradable and compostable products enables polyethylene (HDPE and LLDPE) to decompose both in atmospheric conditions and under soil or compost, thereby releasing CO2.
Biodegradable and compostable polymers are generally recognised as those, which are designed to degrade through the action of living organisms. The bio-chemical agents, employed to produce the biodegradable materials, comprise mainly of enzymes, sodium salts and oxidation agents, which react with polyethylene types of HDPE and LLDPE. It is a highly cost-effective, eco-friendly, and non-hazardous technology with applications primarily for making carrier bags, polyethylene liners, waste bags and films.
Disintegration of plastic products occurs where the intrinsic chemical structure of plastic residues remains unaltered in the soil, even after being exposed to UV radiation, photo-degradation, and high-energy radiation. However, biodegradation or, alternatively, chain-end degradation, is achieved within plastic when enzymatic characteristics aid the unzipping mechanism of the polyethylene molecular chain ends.
This results in a successive release of monomeric units composting with a successive liberation of CO2 gases. Thermal degradation also follows this unzipping procedure. The oxidation/reduction systems in connection with bacterial metabolism, inhibited in polyethylene through enzyme composition, have augmented the biodegradable, compostable process.
This idea of oxidation naturally involves the exhortation of oxygen to the compound, a typical example being the combustion of carbon to yield CO2.
Biodegradation and compostability of plastic products is achieved through an enzymatic composition, which contains various AMIDS. Our patented compound acts as an active centre of high energy on a cell surface caused by the interplay of inter-molecular forces between neighbouring polyethylene molecules.
The treatment we use produces a specific power of absorption, of the inhibited bacterial culture, within the polyethylene lattice. The electron shells are distorted thus producing instability within the polyethylene molecules. The latter are now capable of undergoing a chemical and thermal change.
The treatment compound, an inhibited culture of bifido bacterial metabolism, contains macro-molecules, which exert a living bio-chemical mode of action when the compound is exposed to normal micro-climatic conditions found outdoors.
The myth which the bacterial metabolism becomes inactive or dead at enhanced high temperatures, is subsequently proved to be wrong as the bacteria simply remain in a state of suspended animation only (Sleeping Mode).
Hence these bacteria once again become active and viable after coming into contact with outdoor soils, atmospheric conditions, and normal temperatures.
The plastic treatment, used in this biotechnology, becomes a source for the growth of the bacterial culture. The latter have been observed for numbers and growth rates under laboratory conditions and testing. The total fungal and bacterial counts, for biodegradable and compostable polyethylene bags, have been expressed in units of CFU/gm.*
A definite bacterial group, found alive and active in these bags treated with our enzymes, proves that both soil and bag bacteria jointly eat away at the polyethylene film leading to total biodegradation of the latter.
Bacterial and fungal counts were enumerated and classified by Vimta Labs. The total fungal count is; 10 CFU/g and total bacterial count is 25 CFU/g.
*CFU means Colony Forming Unit. Since bacteria have been enumerated as CFU, further multiplication of bacteria cannot be ruled out.
Enzymes used with this product are regarded as catalysts, helping to promote the chemical reactions within the polyethylene and thus accelerating the process of degradation. Auto-trophic bacteria, present in mineral salt media, containing some form of nitrogenous material, are also employed in this biotechnology.
Carbon is formed from the added oxidation agents within this product. The pH value of this embedded polyethylene composition is 9.5 thus confirming its alkaline characteristics.
All the ingredients of our plastic products are organic, food-grade and non-toxic in nature.
It is known that soil comprises at least 58% Carbon. The greater part of the nitrogenous fraction of soil is closely linked to organic matter. As the organic soil matter gradually decomposes, the nitrogen component gradually gives way to water or available forms of ammonia and nitrates. A moist soil environment reacts with the biodegradable and compostable polyethylene film rendering it susceptible to composting and the release of CO2.
The polyethylene product is preheated through a palletising process. The compounded polyethylene is then kept at normal temperatures for a period of 12-24 hours before subjecting it to an extrusion process. Subsequently to manufacture, the following test procedures have been adopted to evaluate any loss in tensile strength:
1. Ultra-Violet Radiation
3. Soil Burial
4. Thermo-Gravimetric and Differential Analysis
The results were as per ASTM – D – 882 Standards.
The enzymatic treatment is used at 1% – 5% dosage for Polyethylene depending on the thickness of the film, (90% HDPE, 10% LLDPE) and mechanically coated. The use of this product makes Polyethylene (HDPE LLDPE) 100% biodegradable and compostable. Costs for this process are very cheap compared to any other method currently prevailing in the world.